A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food. Symptoms of the allergic reaction can range from mild to severe. They can include itching, swollen tongue, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure. This typically occurs from a few minutes to several hours of exposure. When symptoms are severe, it is called anaphylaxis. A food intolerance and food poisoning are distinct conditions, not due to an immune response.
Common foods involved include cow’s milk, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, fish, tree nuts, soy, wheat, rice, and fruit. Common allergies vary by country. Risk factors include a family history of allergies, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, and high levels of cleanliness. Allergies occur when immunoglobulin E (IgE), part of the body’s immune system, binds to food molecules. Usually the problem is a protein in the food. This triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine. Diagnosis is usually based on a history, elimination diet, skin test, blood tests for food-specific IgE antibodies, or oral food challenge.
Early exposure to potential allergens can be protective. Management is mainly about avoiding the food in question and having a plan in case of exposure. This plan may include the administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) and the use of medical alert jewelry. The benefits of allergen immunotherapy for food allergies are unclear, so they are not recommended as of 2015. Some types of food allergies among children resolve with age, including milk, egg and soy; while others such as nuts and shellfish generally don’t.
In the developed world, about 4% to They are more common in children than adults and appear to increase in frequency. Boys appear to be more commonly affected than girls. Some allergies most commonly develop early in life, while others typically develop in old age. In developed countries, a large percentage of people believe they have food allergies when in fact they don’t. The declaration of the presence of traces of allergens in food is mandatory only in Brazil.
Adverse reactions to food: food intolerances and allergies
To find out more, let’s clarify the terms a bit:ALLERGY: means different reaction because each individual reacts differently. An allergic person in turn can have symptoms of varying severity, from hives to anaphylactic shock.
Food allergy represents the effect that the substances contained in foods have on our body. Talking about allergy means talking about a symptomatology that is triggered in a short time (2 – 3 minutes) or in a longer time (30 – 120 minutes) from the intake of a certain food.
The adverse pathological manifestation is supported by an immunological type reaction. Allergic symptoms are triggered by the intake of even small amounts of the responsible food. The most fearful consequence of food allergy is anaphylaxis, a serious systemic reaction whose symptoms can be fatal and which can be triggered even by minimal quantities of food.
When a person is allergic, they remain allergic for life.
FOOD INTOLERANCE: this is defined as any unwanted reaction triggered by the ingestion of one or more foods, in this case the reaction is dose-dependent; moreover, unlike allergy, it is not mediated by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms of intolerance (urticaria, diarrhea, vomiting ..) are very similar to those of allergy but it is distinguished by some characteristics:
it is not caused by immunological reactions,it can be related to components present in food or substances contained in the food,it can derive from metabolic characteristics of the host who therefore cannot take certain foods (e.g. lactase deficiency),the severity of the pathological manifestations is related to the quantity of food eaten
Unlike allergy, intolerance is not a permanent condition, it can only persist for a few months / periods.We also remind you that all schools must communicate to the Sian Service:allergies,intolerances,permanent conditions (such as celiac disease, favism …)
of children, attaching a copy of the medical certificate in their possession. In the case of a certificate of intolerance, the period of time during which the food must be removed from the diet must be indicated (3 months, 6 months …)